138 Fiber Optics and Optical Calibration

Fiber Optic Connectors(Formerly Course 174)

Applications  This course relates to a broad range of fiber optic applications such as telecommunications, automotive, space and military telecommunication systems.

For Whom Intended  This course provides an excellent foundation in optics and the use of fiber optic cabling for division chiefs and QA/QC personnel as well as technical personnel involved in design, manufacturing and testing and calibration of fiber optic cables and laser applications. It is especially useful for engineers involved in telecommunications design as well as those designing and testing fiber optics replacement systems for traditional wiring, especially on-board systems such as aircraft, military vehicles, space and naval vessels and automotive platforms.

Brief Course Description  This course provides an understanding of the theory of optics and its application in the transmission of data along fiber optic cables. Advantages of using fiber optics are discussed such as: a large amount of data (wide bandwidth) can be transmitted over a single piece of fiber at high speeds; optical transmission is less susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI), thus reducing problems due to noise and increasing the security of data transmission.

Disadvantages of fiber optics are discussed along with measures needed to overcome them, such as selecting good quality connectors and preparing procedures and training for fiber optic system assemblers.

The course covers each item in the fiber optic system, such as types of fiber, light source, transmitters, receivers, repeaters, amplifiers, together with test and measurement techniques. Special emphasis is placed on Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (DWDM) applications. Calibration of instruments and systems for the measurement of optical properties is covered in detail, including optical power meters, wavemeters, optical spectrum analyzers and polarization controllers.

Diploma Programs  This course is a recommended elective for TTi’s Instrumentation Test Specialist (ITS) Diploma Program, and may be used as an elective for any of TTi’s specialist diploma programs.

Related Courses Course 172, Fiber Optic Systems, covers related material but omits calibration and goes into greater depth on optical theory and fiber optic systems.

Prerequisites  There are no definite prerequisites for this course. However, this course is aimed toward individuals involved in a related technical field.

Text  Each student will receive 180 days access to the on-line electronic course workbook. Renewals and printed textbooks are available for an additional fee.

Course Hours, Certificate and CEUs  Class hours/days for on-site courses can vary from 14-35 hours over 2-5 days as requested by our clients. Upon successful course completion, each participant receives a certificate of completion and one Continuing Education Unit (CEU) for every ten class hours.

Click for a printable course outline (pdf).

Course Outline

Chapter 1 - Introduction to Fiber Optic Systems

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00

Chapter 2 - Introduction to Light Properties

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Light
  • Wave Theory
  • Particle Theory
  • Light Phenomena
  • Light Properties - Wavelength
  • Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • LW Transmission Bands

Chapter 3 - Introduction to Light Transmission

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Light Energy
  • Coherence
  • Interference
  • Unwanted Transmission Reflections
  • Reflections
  • Polarization of a Light Beam
  • Polarization
  • Spectrum
  • Poincaré Sphere
  • The Logarithmic Scale

Chapter 4 - Optical Fibers

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Disadvantages of Using Copper Cable
  • Advantages of Fiber-Optic Cables
  • Disadvantages of Fiber-Optic Cables
  • The Glass Optical Fiber
  • Typical Glass Optical Fiber
  • The Plastic Optical Fiber (POF)
  • Propagation of the Light Wave
  • Refractive Index (n)
  • Speed of Light
  • Optical Dielectric Wave Guide
  • Critical Angle ( c)
  • Snell's Law
  • Numerical Aperture (NA) Number
  • Optical Fiber Modes
  • Single and Multimode Optical Fiber
  • Multi-Mode (multi rays)
  • Refractive Index for Various Mode Types
  • Common Fiber Mode Types and Properties
  • High and Low Order Transmission Modes
  • Modal Dispersion
  • Material Dispersion
  • Chromatic Dispersion
  • Optical Fiber Signal Attenuation
  • Typical Attenuation/Wavelength for Silica Fiber
  • Attenuation Coefficient ( )
  • Fraction of Power (T) Transmitted through Fiber
  • Bending Loss
  • Optical Fiber Cut-off Wavelength ( cut-off )
  • Example

Chapter 5 - Light Sources

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Light
  • Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • Propagation
  • Other Light Sources
  • Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation (Laser)
  • Lasers
  • Laser Pump
  • Normal Mode Laser
  • Flashlamp Pump
  • Comparison between Normal and Laser Light
  • Laser Design Parameters
  • Laser Spatial Properties
  • Low-SSE Tunable Laser Cavity
  • Resonators and Oscillators
  • Laser Beam
  • Laser Safety Standards
  • Laser Power Classification
  • Laser Power Limits Of Class I (for test equipment applications)
  • Laser Output Power
  • Increase Laser Output Power
  • The Dye Laser
  • Q-Switched Laser
  • Polarized Light Q-Switch
  • Light-Emitting Diode (LED)
  • Fabry-Perot (FP) Laser
  • Distributed Feedback (DFB) Laser
  • Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSEL)
  • External Cavity Laser (ECL)
  • Optical Power vs. Optical Energy
  • Energy Loss Heats Laser Components
  • Laser Efficiency
  • Laser Elements-Lifetime Reliability
  • Eye Safety and High Voltage Supply
  • Chirp

Chapter 6 - Application of Optics to Data Transmission System

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Fiber Cable System vs. Copper Wire System
  • Fiber Optic Data Transmission Systems
  • Basic Fiber Optic Data Transmission Link
  • Typical Long Fiber Optic Link
  • Typical Regenerator Unit
  • Regenerators
  • Optical Amplifiers (OAs)
  • Transmission Speeds
  • Digital Modulation
  • Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)
  • Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (DWDM)
  • DWDM Frequencies
  • Optical Data Transmission
  • Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR)
  • Monitoring and Restoring Optical Networks

Chapter 7 - Chromatic Dispersion Measurements

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Chromatic Dispersion (CD) in Optical Fiber
  • Dispersion Measurements
  • Plot of Speed of Light vs. Signal Speed
  • Chromatic Dispersion Definitions
  • Dispersion Compensating Fiber (DCF)
  • Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings
  • Types of Dispersion in Optical Fiber
  • Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)
  • PMD - Birefringence
  • PMD of Single-Mode Fibers
  • PMD Effects on Optical Digital Transmissions
  • PMD Tolerance vs. Bit Rate

Chapter 8 - Fiber Optical Cabling

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • The Fiber-Optical Cable
  • Cable Designs
  • Fiber Optic Splices
  • Physical Medium
  • Fiber Core Misalignment
  • Fiber Optic Connectors
  • Connector Inspection-Safety Concerns
  • Connector Care
  • Optical Connector Cleaning
  • Termination Kit
  • Fiber Optic Connector Inspector Tool
  • Fiber Connectors
  • Types of Fiber Optic Cable Terminations
  • Single Mode Fiber Optic Patch Cords
  • Multi Mode Fiber Optic Patch Cords
  • Breakout and Drop Fiber Optic Cables

Chapter 9 - Testing Passive Optical Components

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Introduction
  • Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)
  • Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)
  • Increasing Bandwidth
  • Increasing Total Capacity of DWDM System
  • WDM Wavelengths
  • Dense WDM Passive Components
  • Dispersion Compensators
  • Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs)
  • Common Passive Optical Component Tests
  • Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL)
  • Return Loss (RL) or "all loss"
  • Common Tests-Dispersion Measurements
  • Increasing Transmission Capacity
  • Generic Principles of Loss Measurement
  • Common Tests - Generic Principle
  • Increasing Transmission Capacity
  • Swept Loss Measurement
  • Loss Measurement
  • Spectral Insertion Loss Measurement
  • Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) Tests
  • Random Polarization Scanning Techniques
  • Mueller Matrix Technique
  • Polarization Test Methods
  • Mueller Method vs. Polarization Scanning
  • Return Loss (RL) Tests
  • Calibration of the Set-Up
  • Source Monitoring
  • Test System Problems and Solutions
  • TLS - Multiple PM Set-Up
  • Measuring Insertion Loss vs. Wavelength
  • Dynamic Range
  • Dynamic Range-Filters
  • Low-SSE Tunable Laser Cavity
  • Wavelength Accuracy
  • High-Speed Wavelength Meter
  • Real Time Wavelength Meter
  • Real Time Wavelength Meter, cont.
  • Gas Absorption Cells as Wavelength Reference
  • Wavelength Accuracy / Speed
  • Swept Insertion Loss Results

Chapter 10 - Application of Eye Diagrams

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Non Return-to-Zero (NRZ) vs. Return-to-Zero (RZ) Signals
  • Dispersion
  • Chromatic Dispersion
  • Polarization Mode Dispersion
  • NRZ and RZ signals
  • Extinction Ratio Measurements
  • Jitter
  • Jitter Defined
  • Digital Waveform with Jittered Edges
  • Contrast Ratio or Suppression Ratio
  • Eye Diagram
  • NRZ and RZ Eye Diagrams
  • Eye Mask Testing
  • Bit Error Rate (BER)
  • Stressed Eye Testing Procedure
  • Referenced Receiver

Chapter 11 - Introduction to Metrology and Calibration

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • The International System of Units (SI)
  • SI Base Units
  • SI Derived Units
  • Measurement Standard, Definition
  • Classification of Standards
  • Common Terms
  • Classification of Errors
  • Measurement Error
  • Random Error Sources
  • Random and Systematic Error
  • Systematic Error Sources
  • Error Assessment
  • Accuracy
  • Precision
  • Accuracy Vs. Precision
  • "System Accuracy" or "Calibration" Plot
  • Uncertainty

Chapter 12 - Measurement Standards and Traceability

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Introduction
  • Measurement Standard, Definition
  • Classification of Standards
  • Traceability
  • Definition of the Second
  • Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) Scale
  • Definition of the Ampere
  • Current Balance Principle
  • Voltage References-Josephson Junction Device
  • Resistance References-Standard Resistor

Chapter 13 - Calibration Program

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • US Government Agencies
  • Calibration
  • Calibration Program-Set of Operations
  • Historical: MIL-STD-45662A
  • ANSI/NCSL Z540-1-1994
  • Comparison of Compliance Documents
  • National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
  • Organization and Management
  • Quality System, Audit and Review
  • Personnel
  • Accommodations and Environment
  • Equipment and Reference Materials
  • Calibration Status
  • Measurement Traceability & Calibration
  • Calibration Methods (Procedures)
  • Sample Calibration Procedure Template
  • Handling of Calibration Items
  • Calibration Records
  • Certificates and Reports
  • Sub-contracting and Outside Supplies and Services
  • Laboratory Accreditation
  • Additional Guidance
  • Procedures and Accreditation
  • Unified Standards
  • ISO Documents

Chapter 14 - ISO Standard 17025

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Introduction/History
  • Scope
  • Laboratories' Scope of Accreditation
  • Normative References
  • Terms and Definitions
  • Responsibility
  • Compliance Regardless of Location
  • Defining Responsibilities of Personnel
  • Sample Organization Chart
  • Personnel with Authority and Resources
  • Freedom from Undue Influence/Protection of Proprietary Information
  • Reporting of Conflicts of Interest
  • Organization Charts
  • Personnel Documentation
  • Adequate Supervision, Training
  • Technical Manager
  • Quality Manager
  • Key Managerial Personnel
  • Quality System
  • Quality Manual
  • Hierarchy
  • Roles and Responsibilities
  • Document Control

Chapter 15 - Fiber Optic Calibration

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Fiber Optic Overview
  • Optical Specifications
  • Optical Devices
  • Optical Power Meter
  • Optical Power Traceability
  • Uncertainty Sources for Optical Power
  • Calibrating Linearity
  • Plug-In Style Power Meter
  • Cleanliness
  • Cletop Device
  • Cleaning Kit
  • Patch Cords
  • Connectors
  • Optical Sources
  • Wavelength Standards
  • Commercial Gas Cells
  • Using Reference Cells
  • Laser Source with Spurious Emissions
  • Low Spurious Emission Laser
  • Wavemeter
  • Filters
  • Optical Spectrum Analyzers
  • OSA Typical Specifications
  • Wave Meters
  • OTDR
  • OTDR and Back Reflection
  • OTDR Artifacts
  • Optical Attenuator
  • DCA and CSA
  • DCA Display
  • Specifications to Test for DCA/CSA
  • Optical Amplifiers
  • Polarization Controllers
  • SONET Generator & Analyzers
  • SONET Tester Specifications Tested

Appendix A - Glossary and Acronyms

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00

Appendix B - List of Equations

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00

Appendix C - Calculation of Numerical Aperture (NA) Number

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00
  • Numerical Aperature (NA) Number
  • Inverse Functions—Arcsin
  • Example

Appendix D-1 - Cleaning Procedure for Lightwave Test & Measurement Equipment

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00

Appendix D-2 - Calibration Procedure for an Optical Source

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00

Appendix D-3 - NIST Standard Reference Material 2517A

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00

Appendix D-4 - Wavemeter Calibration Procedure

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00

Appendix D-5 - Fiber Optic Attenuator Procedure

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00

Appendix E - Lower Cost Methods of Measuring Optical Bandwidth

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OnDemand Short Topics$25.00


Final Review

Award of Certificates for Successful Completion

Click for a printable course outline (pdf).

Revised 180807